The United Nations Organisation (UNO) was founded in the wake of World War II, on 24 Oct 1945. The charter held out hope of a lasting peace for the millions who had been victims of the Great War. The purpose as laid down in article 1 of the charter:-
(a) To maintain international peace and security.
(b) To develop friendly relations among nations.
(c) To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character.
(d) To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends
Having determined that the situation in Sudan continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security, the Security Council, by its resolution 1590 of 24 March 2005, decided to establish the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS). It also decided that the mandate of UNMIS would be the following:
(a) To support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement by performing the following tasks:
(i) To monitor and verify the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and to investigate violations./
(ii) To liaise with bilateral donors on the formation of Joint Integrated Units.
(iii) To observe and monitor movement of armed groups and redeployment of forces in the areas of UNMIS deployment in accordance with the Ceasefire Agreement.
(iv) To assist in the establishment of the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration program as called for in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, with particular attention to the special needs of women and child combatants.
(v) To assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in promoting understanding of the peace process and the role of UNMIS by means of an effective public information campaign, targeted at all sectors of society, in coordination with the African Union.
(vi) To assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in addressing the need for a national inclusive approach, including the role of women, towards reconciliation and peace-building.
(vii) To assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, in coordination with bilateral and multilateral assistance programs, in restructuring the police service in Sudan,consistent with democratic policing, to develop a police training and evaluation program, and to otherwise assist in the training of civilian police.
(viii) To assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in promoting the rule of law, including an independent judiciary, and the protection of human rights of all people of Sudan through a comprehensive and coordinated strategy with the aim of combating impunity and contributing to long-term peace and stability and to assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement to develop and consolidate the national legal framework.
Jan Pronk (Netherlands)
of the Secretary-General and Head of Mission
(ix) To ensure an adequate human rights presence, capacity, and expertise within UNMIS to carry out human rights promotion, protection, and monitoring activities.
(x) To provide guidance and technical assistance to the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, in cooperation with other international actors, to support the preparations for and conduct of elections and referenda provided for by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
(b) To facilitate and coordinate, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance, inter alia, by helping to establish the necessary security conditions.
(c) To assist the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, in cooperation with other international partners in the mine action sector, by providing humanitarian demining assistance, technical advice, and coordination
Taye-Brook Zerihoun (Ethiopia)
Deputy Special Representative
of the Secretary-General
(d) To contribute towards international efforts to protect and promote human rights in Sudan , as well as to co-ordinate international efforts towards the protection of civilians , with particular attention to vulnerable groups including internally displaced persons, returning refugees, and women and children, within UNMIS's capabilities and in close cooperation with other United Nations agencies, related organizations, and non-governmental organizations. Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the Security Council also:
(i) Decided that UNMIS is authorized to take the necessary action, in the areas of deployment of its forces and as it deems within its capabilities, to protect UN personnel, facilities, installations, and equipment, ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations personnel, humanitarian workers, joint assessment mechanism and assessment and evaluation commission personnel, and, without prejudice to the responsibility of the Government of the Sudan, to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence; and .
(ii) Maintained by the Peace and Security Section of the Department of Public Information in cooperation with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations
Manuel Aranda da Silva (Mozambique)
Deputy Special Representative
of the Secretary-General
Lt Gen Jasbir Singh Lidder (India) Force Commander
In June 2002 a new round of peace negotiations began under IGAD. International observer countries (US, UK, Norway and Italy) were also associated with the talks. The session ended on July 20th when parties signed the Machakos Protocol, which provides a framework for broader negotiations. Key provisions of the Machakos Protocol include a six-year interim period, after which a referendum on self-determination will be held in the South. This will offer a choice between a united Sudan and secession. The parties are also in agreements that Sharia law will continue to be applied only in the North.
During a second round of talks, which started in August 2002, power and wealth sharing were discussed. President Beshir and John Garang, leader of the SPLA held a historic first meeting in Kampala. On October 15th 2002 the Government and the SPLM/A signed an MOU, which called for a complete cessation of hostilities for three months, as well calling for unimpeded humanitarian access. After international pressure and a report by the Civilian Protection and Monitoring Team (CPMT) on fighting in Western Upper Nile, the Government and the SPLM/A agreed in early February 2003 to a number of provisions to strengthen the cessation of hostilities, including the creation of a new international verification and monitoring team.
Glenn Gilbertson (United Kingdom) Police Commissioner
Talks on security arrangements began early April 2003, The Government included the Southern Sudanese Defence Forces (SSDF) - the umbrella of government aligned militia groups, in its official delegation. A fifth session on the so-called contested areas, Abyei, the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, was concluded in May.
Naivasha agreement was signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 25 Sep 2003. During pre interim and interim period 6 1/2 years SAF and SPLA will separate and distinct. Joint integration unit (JIU) will be formed. Joint defense board would be chaired by Chiefs of Staff of SAF and SPLA alternatively. After 2 years SAF and SPLA will withdraw remaining force. Forces allied to either of parties shall be offered the opportunity to join those forces or shall be integrated in civil services. All stated agreements took effect from Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 09 Jan 2005.
The UN Security Council passed the resolution No.1590 on 24 Mar 2005 to bring to establish its peace keeping presence in Sudan.